How &: Works in Ruby

Chances are you've seen and written code like in ruby or rails applications many times. And you may have wondered is that & an operator, is that : part of a Symbol. It's a strange syntax.

Let's demysify &: so you'll know how to use it and exactly why it works!

First we start with blocks and how to pass block arguments to methods.

Passing block arguments to methods and the &

We can think of a Block as a chunk of ruby code associated with method invocation. We know that any method invocation may be followed by a block and the method can invoke the code in that block with a yield statement.

Here is an example. This method generates a sequence of n numbers offset by a constant c and passes them to the block.

def seq(n, c)
  i = 0
  while (i < n)
    yield i + c
    i += 1

And we can invoke that method like this

  seq(5, 2) { |x| puts x }

In this case the block we passed to the method is anonymous. What if we wanted to explicitly refer to the block within the method? We can add a named block argument and precede it with an &. If we do this, the block will be converted to a Proc object. Then we can use the call method of the Proc object instead of the keyword yield in this case (although yield works too).

def seq(n, c, &b)
  i = 0
  while (i < n) + c)
    i += 1

This changes the method definition. We still invoke the method the same way as before seq(5,2) { |x| puts x }. So when would we use the & with method invocation as well?

When & is used before a Proc object in a method invocation, it treats the Proc as if it was an ordinary block following the invocation. Consider the following code that sums up the numbers in an array.

a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a.inject(0) { |total, n| total + n }

We could be more explicit about using a Proc object for the block.

a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
summation = { |total, n| total + n }
a.inject(0, &summation)

And that code snippet is equivalent to the one above.

One more thing to note. In a method invocation, an & usually appears before a Proc object. However, it's allowed before any object that has a to_proc method. For example Method object and Symbol both have to_proc after Ruby 1.9. So that is why we see code like

Now let's work out exactly how &:first_name above works.

How does the &: thing work?

This is where to_proc method of Symbol class comes in. So translates to { |u| u.first_name }

We can see that that translation is done with a combination of a symbol, the method Symbol#to_proc, implicit class casting, and & operator.


  1. If we put & in front of a Proc instance in the argument position, that will be interpreted as a block.
  2. If we put something other than a Proc instance with &, implicit class casting will try to convert that to a Proc instance using to_proc method defined on that object if there is any. In case of a Symbol there is a to_proc method.

One last thing. A subtle point to note: all method names are available by their Symbol names as well. You can call a method on an object like 1.to_s and 1.send(:to_s). So really (1..10).each(&:to_s) is equivalent to (1..10).each { |x| x.send(:to_s) }. The symbol is passed as an argument to the send() method.

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